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Kaposi sarcoma, HHV-8, CMV, co-infection, Nodular Kaposi sarcoma
Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-associated neoplasm. It is a vascular neoplasm that occurs as a result of infection with a human herpesvirus (HHV-8). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HHV-8 both belong to Herpesviridae, a family of DNA viruses. CMV is highly prevalent in the general population and can cause localized or disseminated disease in AIDS patients.
Case: A 42-year-old male with an HIV infection presented with a painful ulcerated growing white nodule with overlying telangiectatic vessels on the right third toe that he noticed 4 weeks ago. A tangential biopsy revealed a vascular proliferation which was diffusely positive for HHV-8. In addition, scattered inclusion bodies were observed, indicating co-infection with CMV.
Conclusion: This case reinforces the importance of considering KS as a potential diagnosis in all AIDS patients with unusual exophytic growths to avoid potential misdiagnosis and improper management.
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