Verrucous Keratoses Associated with Checkpoint Inhibitor Immunotherapy

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Joshua L Owen
Cory Kosche
Jennifer N Choi


immunotherapy, verrucous keratosis, VK, checkpoint inhibitor, PD-1, PD1, nivolumab, irAE, squamoproliferative



Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy is associated with numerous adverse events, including eruptive keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas. However, no cases of immunotherapy-associated verrucous keratoses (VKs) have been reported. VKs are proliferative lesions generally considered benign, although they have been suggested to represent premalignant lesions.


We present the first case series of three patients with immunotherapy-associated VKs. The patients were receiving nivolumab for renal cell carcinoma, combination ipilimumab/nivolumab for non-small cell lung carcinoma, and pembrolizumab for malignant melanoma. The VKs appeared 3-7 months after initiation of immunotherapy. Lesions were treated with shave removal or cryosurgery without recurrence. This report adds to the spectrum of cutaneous squamoproliferative lesions induced by checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.


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