Cysteamine: Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability versus best-in-class treatments for melasma

Main Article Content

Seemal Desai


cysteamine, melasma




1. Gallego-Villar (2017). Cysteamine revisited: repair of arginine to cysteine mutations. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis., 40(4), 555-567.

2. Chavin, W.; Schlesinger, W. (1966). Some potent melanin depigmentary agents in the black goldfish. Die Naturwissenschaften
53(16): 413–414.

3. Frenk E, Pathak MA, Szabo G, Fitzpatrick TB. (1968). Selective action of mercaptoethylamines on melanocytes in mammalian
skin: experimental depigmentation. Arch Dermatol 97:465–77.

4. Bleehen, S. S., Pathak, M. A., Hori, Y., & Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1968). Depigmentation of skin with 4-isopropylcatechol,
mercaptoamines, and other compounds. J Invest Dermatol, 50(2), 103-117.

5. Qiu L, Zhang M, Sturm RA, Gardiner B, Tonks I, Kay G, Parsons PG. (2000) Inhibition of melanin synthesis by cysteamine in
human melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol. 114(1):21-7.

6. Atallah, C., Charcosset, C., & Greige-Gerges, H. (2020). Challenges for cysteamine stabilization, quantification, and biological
effects improvement. J Pharm Anal.

7. Mansouri, P.; Farshi, S.; Hashemi, Z.; Kasraee, B. (2015).Evaluation of the efficacy of cysteamine 5% cream in the treatment of
epidermal melasma: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 173 (1): 209–217.

8. Farshi, and al. (2017).Efficacy of cysteamine cream in the treatment of epidermal melasma, evaluating by Dermacatch as a
new measurement method: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Dermatol Treat, 1–8.

9. Wood, J. M., & Schallreuter, K. U. (1991). Studies on the reactions between human tyrosinase, superoxide anion, hydrogen
peroxide and thiols. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1074(3), 378-385.

10. Sakurai, H.; Yokoyama, A.; Tanaka, H. (1971). Studies on the sulfur-containing chelating agents. XXXI. Catalytic effect of
copper (II) ion to formation of mixed disulfide. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 19, 1416–1423

11. Bottu, G. (1989). The effect of quenchers on the chemiluminescence of luminol and lucigenin. J Biolumin Chemilumin.

12. Crinelli, Rita, et al. (2019). Boosting GSH Using the Co-Drug Approach: I-152, a Conjugate of N-acetyl-cysteine and βmercaptoethylamine. Nutrients 11.6 1291.

13. Publication pending

14. Karrabi, M., and al. (2020). Clinical evaluation of efficacy, safety and tolerability of cysteamine 5% cream in comparison with
modified Kligman’s formula in subjects with epidermal melasma: A randomized, double‐blind clinical trial study. Skin Res and

15. Karrabi, M., and al. (2020). Clinical evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of cysteamine 5% cream in comparison with
tranexamic acid mesotherapy in subjects with melasma: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial study. Arch of Dermatol Res.

16. Nguyen, J & Rodrigues, M. (2021). Evaluation of the efficacy of cysteamine cream compared to hydroquinone in the treatment
of melasma: A randomised, double‐blinded trial. Aus J Dermatol, 62(1), e41-e46.

Most read articles by the same author(s)